4G: Legendary Single RAN
4G LTE will evolve in the long term, emphasizing evolution. Therefore, The name of the 4G base station is added to the front of the Node B with an Evolved, which becomes the e Node B, evolved Node B.
In the 4G era, software radio not only opened a window for the base station, but also opened a door.
The biggest feature of the base station in the 4G era is Single RAN, which is a set of devices that combines 2G/3G/4G standards. Single RAN also applies software-defined radio technology. It is another major change in mobile base stations after the separation of BBU and RRU, which further reduces the complexity and construction cost of the base station antenna.
Single RAN was first introduced by Huawei. As early as 2008, at this time, it has not entered the 4G era. Huawei and Vodafone deployed the world's first Single RAN base station that integrates 2G and 3G. Subsequently, operators such as Latin América Móvil, Finland TeliaSonera, Sweden Net4Mobility, Aero2... have purchased Huawei Single RAN products because Huawei's Single RAN makes full use of the flexibility of software and standards, and is aimed at future 2G/3G/4G integration, which can be lower. Costly provides operators with a smooth evolution to 4G channels.
Imange from the Singlera report of Vodafone in the early years
Single RAN helped Huawei to win a lot of orders and laid a solid foundation for Huawei to open the 4G market.
At that time, overseas media reported that Single RAN has become a star in the industry.
The Economist reported that after deploying Huawei's Single RAN, América Móvil reduced its base station power consumption by 50% and the required number of devices by 70%.
Fortune" magazine said in a report that Huawei Single RAN equipment can handle 2G, 3G, WiMax, CDMA, GSM and other types of signals in a "box", which is making this Chinese equipment manufacturer a A more powerful competitor because the product can help operators save a lot of money.
Single RAN, a legendary product in Huawei's wireless history, has helped Huawei to open up overseas territory in an unprecedented way. Since then, it has entered the 4G era, and Huawei's share of wireless devices has climbed from fourth to first in the industry
5G: Base station reconstruction
Now entering the 5G era, 5G antenna supports ultra-high speed, ultra-low latency and ultra-multiple connections. The business is diversified and puts new requirements on the base station:
1) The forward bandwidth of the 5G base station is as high as several hundred G to Tbps. The CPRI optical interface between the traditional BBU and the RRU is too much pressure, and some functions need to be separated to reduce the forward transmission bandwidth.
2) 5G is for multi-service, low-latency applications need to be closer to users, ultra-large-scale IoT applications require efficient processing, and 5G base stations should have flexible expansion capabilities.
Unlike the BBU+RRU architecture of a 4G base station, the 5G base station is reconstructed into three parts: a CU (Central Unit), a DU (Distributed Unit), and an AAU/RRU (Remote Radio Unit).
The network between the RRU/AAU and the DU is called the preamble, the CU and the DU are called the middle transmission, and the CU to the core network is called the back transmission.
Such an architecture design can better promote RAN virtualization and reduce the forward bandwidth while meeting low latency requirements.
There are four main deployment methods for future 5G base stations:
1. RRU/AAU, CU and DU are deployed independently
The distance between the RRU and the DU is in the range of 0-20 km, and the distance between the DU and the CU can reach tens of kilometers.
2, CU and DU co-site deployment
CU and DU together, there is no transmission, the current 5G base station is basically this way.
3. RRU/AAU and DU are deployed nearby
RRUs and DUs are deployed close to each other, possibly hundreds of meters, for example, to achieve different floor coverage within a building.
4, RRU / AAU, DU and CU integrated deployment
This situation is usually applied to the micro-station coverage hotspot, and only the backhaul is available in this scenario.
I almost forgot to talk about it, the 5G base station is called gNB.
Why is it called gNB?
The full name of gNB is called next Generation Node B. Originally, it should be ngNB, but only one letter can be kept in front. If it is called nNB, Grandma B? It seems that this name is not very nice, so just call gNB.
In fact, when naming 5G base stations in the early days, the major manufacturers proposed different methods. For example, ZTE called NB BS, AT&T called fNB, NEC called 5NB, and Intel called gNB... Finally, 3GPP was uniformly identified as gNB.
But is it just a gNB that can represent a 5G base station?
As we all know, early 5G deployments have a variety of options, including stand-alone deployment and non-independent deployment, so the names of 5G base stations in various combinations have also changed.
Anchored to the existing 4G base station and core network, the 5G base station at this time is called en-gNB; if the option 7 is adopted later, the 4G base station under the 5G core network is no longer called eNB, but is called ng-eNB. Is it a 5G base station or a 4G base station?
Also, as mentioned above, the 5G base station is separated into DU, CU and AAU/RRU. Therefore, there should be gNB DU, gNB CU, plus various pre-transmission separation schemes, and there will be lls-gNB- DU, lls-gNB-CU... (lls, separation of the underlying functions)
Finally, use a picture to describe the history of mobile base stations in 40 years, it should be like this...
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